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METHODS OF RAINWATER HARVESTING
   
COLLECTING AND STORING ARTIFICIAL RECHARGING
 
 
 
COLLECTING AND STORING
This method involves saving the precious drops of rain where they fall. During the monsoon when the rainfall is plenty, rainwater can be collected and stored in order to make use of it later. This will prevent Freshwater from being wasted uncaringly. This method can be adopted by independent house, flats, as well as industrial house. Approximately 700 liters of water can be collected from one ground in a day when there is a normal rainfall. This method further involves three steps, diverting, filtering and storing.
 
Diverting
During the monsoon, the raindrops that fall on the roof and on the ground can be gathered to provide a good quality of freshwater supply. In order to save them properly, they have to be delivered towards a particular storage point. The Water from the rooftops can be directed towards an opening by providing mild slopes. This opening connected with PVC pipe will enable the water to flow down to a tank or a well. Run off water on the ground surface should be blocked by compound walls and by raising the level near the gate. Storm water drains inside the premises should have a 6’’ boundary wall to ensure that the rainwater does not rush into the drains immediately.
 
Filtering
Rainwater collected from the rooftops and from the surface run of the ground will have lot of impurities in them. It has to be filtered to clear the silt, this will prevent silts being deposited in the storage well or tank. Filtering will prevent enable to harvest a good quality freshwater usage.
 
Storing
The collected water needs to be stored. It has to be preserved to draw out whenever necessary. From this a well of good depth suitable to the prevailing soil condition should construct. It should be covered to prevent dust and other particles from failing into the water and polluting it. It should be cleaned periodically to remove any deposit of silt. A good maintenance will enable perennial fresh water supply.
 
ARTIFICIAL RECHARGING
Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at rate exceeding that under natural conditions of replenishment. When rainwater falls on the ground some of it seeps into the ground, this is called percolation. The quantity of seepage depends upon the soil conditions. The percolated water join the Aquifers May be scientifically defined as a formation that contains sufficient saturated permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to a wells, bore wells etc. This underground water is a valuable economic commodity. Artificial Recharge is a process of augmenting this underground water table by artificial in filtration of rainwater and the surface run off.
 
Artificial Recharge in Independent Houses, Flats and Campuses
Whenever there are open ground the topsoil is removed and filled with river sand. As river sand is loosely packed. It allows water to percolate down quickly. To make water to percolate down the soil, percolation pits are made when there is a paved pathway. Percolation pits are square pits filled with small pebbles or brick jelly and river sand. Then they are covered with perforated concrete slabs whenever necessary.

Whenever the depth of the clay soil is more, recharge through percolation pits with bore is preferable. The bores are deep pits to the dimension of about 10” internal diameter and about 20’ to 25’depth depending on the soil condition. This bore can be at the center of square pit.
Bathing water and water used for washing purpose can be directed to the open ground nearby to percolate down. This will help to retrain the soil moisture. However the connecting pipe should have a ‘U’ shaped bend which will act like water seal not allowing insects to enter into the bathroom. A chemical sprayed in the water will prevent mosquitoes from breeding in it.
 
Artificial Recharge in Industries
In industrial set up rainwater, collection from the roof area can be used for coolants and cutting oil. Treated water from the affluent treatment plant can be utilized for maintaining the green belt. Special type of plants and trees, which absorb the nutrients like magnesium, Ammonium Sulphate, nitrogen etc. which are otherwise harmful can be planted to reduce the ill effects. Factories should not keep the smudges in an open ground, as it will pollute the underground water. Rainwater from monsoons should be made to percolate the soil to dilute the underground water. This will minimize the harmful effects of the water from the affluent treatment plant.
 
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